Online Teaching and Learning:  A Bibliography and Annotated Literature Review


Cathy Anderson, Ph.D.

(*Articles with asterisks are annotated.)


Abdellatief, M., Abu Bakar, M. S., Marzanah, A. J., & Abdullah, R. (2011).*

Abraime, P., Bernard, R, Bures,E, , Borokhovski, E., & Tamin, R. (2011).*

Bennett, S., & Santy, J. (2009).*

Bonnel, W., & Boehm, H. (2011).

Chapman, B. F., & Henderson, R. G. (2010).*

Chao, I., Saj, T., & Hamilton, D. (2010).*

Chin, C. R., & Hullinger, H. (2008).*

Chou, P. (2012).*

Cook-Wallace, M. (2012).*

Crawford-Ferre, H., Wiest, L., . (2012). *

Dechant, K., & Dechant, L. (2010).*

Dykman Charlene, A., & During, Charles, K. (2008).•

Greenhalgh, T., Toon, P., Russell, J., Wong, G., & al, e. (2003).

Horne, E.., & Sandmann, L. (2012).*

Hunter, D. Y. (2011).

Ismail, I., & Siti, N. A. (2012).

Mahboub, E. H. (2011).

Molinari, C. A. (2012).*

Nowell, G. (2011).*

Phillips, Janet M,M.S., R.N. (2005).

Poteau, C. E. (2011).*

Revere, L., & Kovach, J. V. (2011).*

Reynolds, R. (2011).

Roe, R. (2010).*

Shea, P. (2009).

Shelton, K. (2010).*

Songtao, M., & Lin, Z. (2012).*

Tello, S.  (2007).*

Zhao, F. (2003).

Abdellatief, M., Abu Bakar, M. S., Marzanah, A. J., & Abdullah, R. (2011).*

A technique for quality evaluation of E-learning from developers’ perspective. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration, 3(1), 157-164. Retrieved from

REVIEW:  The authors stated they conducted their study as follows:  “We conducted extensive survey on quality evaluation methods proposed in the literature, (McCall, 1979; Pruengkarn et al., 2005; Baruque et al., 2007; Ozkan and Koseler, 2009; Wang et al., 2007; Akinson and McBeath, 2004; Yunus and Salim, 2008). Also extensive review was conducted on e-learning systems (Jabr and Omari, 2010; El-Sofany et al., 2009; Ghaleb et al., 2006; Harbouche and Djoudi, 2007; Hirzallah, 2007).

Research Design:

  • Step 1: Design a questionnaire for collecting data from developer, who are developing e-learning websites.
  • Step 2: Assign points and assign the value for each attributes, which are obtain from questionnaires.
  • Step 3: Compute the attributes value, sub-characteristics value and the value of Quality Characteristics (QC).
  • Step 4: Compute the Total Quality (TQ) of e- Learning website

SUMMARY:  In this study the authors  proposed four quality characteristics named Service Content, System Functionality, Information Technology and System Reliability they then proposed 11 sub-characteristics with attributes.

Abraime, P., Bernard, R, Bures,E, , Borokhovski, E., & Tamin, R. (2011).*

Interaction in distance education and online learning: Using evidence and theory to improve practice. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 23(2-3), 82-103. doi:

REVIEW:  Identifies the essential types of interaction in online education as student to student, student with faculty and student to content interaction.  Provided an overview of the following evidence-based approaches to instructional design as:

  • Self-regulation principles
  • Multimedia learning principles
  • Motivational design principles
  • Collaborative and cooperative learning principles.

SUMMARY:  In summary the main points of their findings are as follows:

  • First, knowledge tools must be structured so they increase the efficiency of learning as well as the effectiveness of learning.

  • Second, students need more guidance about when to use the tool and not only whether to use it.

  • Third, like any tool, physical or cognitive, users need practice to use the tool well and wisely.

  • Fourth, cognitive tools and learning strategies may work best when they are an integral feature of a course or program of study and not an add-on.

Bennett, S., & Santy, J. (2009).*

A window on our teaching practice: Enhancing individual online  

           teaching quality though online peer observation and support. A UK case study.

Nurse Education in Practice, 9(6), 403-406. doi:

REVIEW AND SUMMARY:  This is a case study analysis of online learning and teaching that analyzes the observations of the researchers in their peer observation of online courses.  This analysis also covers the details of a discussion with their peers regarding online education.  

The authors define “Peer observation is typically understood as a process whereby a teacher participates as an observer in a lesson (or other form of educational delivery) to facilitate exploration and evaluation of the learning and teaching process.”  

As they stated, their intention was to explore the potential of an  idea and take an action learning approach by observing the online learning environment.   They found that using the internet for online professional development was a source of support, allowed for transdisciplinary observations, and was a viable mode of content delivery.

Bonnel, W., & Boehm, H. (2011).

Improving feedback to students online: Teaching tips from experienced faculty. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 42(11), 503-9. doi:

This is a survey based study that was conducted in  two parts.  The first part was to gather information regarding the faculty backgrounds and how they approached gathering feedback.  IN Phase II the researchers conducted further surveys and validated they themes they saw in Phase I.

Fifteen themes describing feedback practices emerged from the open-ended responses. These were defined under three primary categories of tools/technology, being systematic and creating a feedback rich environment. The final discussion identified feedback as a way to enhance their approach by faculty to online teaching.  Feedback can be time intensive but many faculty had found ways and offered suggestions to streamline the process.    Integrating the instruction into professional development offered to instructors in online learning is strongly suggested.

Chapman, B. F., & Henderson, R. G. (2010).*


REVIEW:  The authors state that the purpose of this study was to “examine the extent to which quality measures or benchmarks are present in e-learning business education courses and programs.”

Resarch Design:  Their approach to conduct this study was to conduct survey research in order to  determine “whether benchmarks developed by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP) are present in online business education courses and programs.”  The participants in this study included 64 business teachers and 62 instructional designers.  

The survey conducted addressed the following; The e-Learning Quality Assessment Survey included 24 Web-based quality assurance benchmarks identified in a research study by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP) (2002) to be important benchmarks that can be used to assess quality in e-learning courses and programs.

SUMMARY:  In their findings they did find some professional and demographic differences between the business teachers and the distance learning coordinators.  They also found agreements on most of the IHEP quality assurance benchmarks, but some disagreement on the importance of access to instructional resources such as library services.   They agreed that the following were important;  rich course content, effective interaction, excellent reliability, and efficient user-friendliness are also important quality assurance benchmarks in online courses.

Chao, I., Saj, T., & Hamilton, D. (2010).*

Using collaborative course development to achieve online course quality standards. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distance Learning, 11(3), 106-126. Retrieved from

REVIEW AND Research Design:  This article presents the findings of an analysis of four case studies’ approach into collaborative course development process and the implementation of quality standards at a Canadian university.  

The study had three purposes:

  • (1) determining how quality standards can be effectively used and implemented by faculty and instructional designers;
  • (2) determining what kinds of collaborative processes involving faculty and instructional design staff best support the implementation of quality review processes; and
  • (3) ascertaining how to make the development process as effective as possible by examining both the important elements of course quality and the key elements of collaboration.

SUMMARY:  In addition to the implementation of quality guidelines they found that the implementation of the guidelines in evaluating the quality of the course depended on the experience of the faculty and that the guidelines were especially helpful to less experienced faculty.   They emphasized that faculty and instructional designers felt the guidelines were just that, a guide, and should have some flexibility in application and not serve as a template as each course has unique characteristics.

Chin, C. R., & Hullinger, H. (2008).*

New benchmarks in higher education: Student engagement in online learning. Journal of Education for Business, 84(2), 101-108. Retrieved from

REVIEW:  Their research is embedded in the findings of the National Student Survey of Engagement, (NSSE).  

METHOD:  They conducted a comparative analysis of students in the top performing institutions, nationally, in engaging students in the classroom with students in online.  They found that students in online reported a higher level of faculty student engagement, but lower levels of academic challenge.  

SUMMARY:  Their findings resulted in confirming that the design of a course should focus on increasing student-faculty interaction on resources and related activities to the course.

Chou, P. (2012).*

Teaching strategies in online discussion board: A framework in higher education. Higher Education Studies, 2(2), 25-30. Retrieved from

REVIEW, Research Design and SUMMARY:  Detailed description of the above five factors  identified in the literature review was discussed as follows:

  • 1)  Collaborative Learning (Peers Support/ Cooperation/Familiar with Peers/ Social Loafing)
  • 2)  Instructional Strategies (Posting Guidelines/Strategies/ Question type/Argumentation)
  • 3)  Instructor’ role/ Mentor Support
  • 4)  Communication (Interaction/Technical Errors/ Social Presence)
  • 5)  Course Guideline/Resources

In response to the five factors discussed earlier, a cost-effective instructional framework to promote online asynchronous discussions was proposed. The strategy, which makes full use of web 2.0 tools (free tools), was summarized as follows:

  • 1. Blogging (related to factor 1 and factor 2)
  • 2.  Skype (related to factor 3 and factor 4)
  • 3. Podcasting (related to factor 5)
  • 4.  Facebook (related to factor 1)
  • 5.  Wiki (related to factor 1 and factor 2)

They initiated a pilot project to evaluate the above factors’ efficacy in an online course. They concluded that implementing the tools in online would support student learning.

Cook-Wallace, M. (2012).*

Testing the significance of core components of online education. The Business Review, Cambridge,19(2), 64-70. Retrieved from

REVIEW, Research Method and SUMMARY:  According to the researcher “the purpose of the study was to examine major important and effective components pertaining to online teaching perceived from administrators of online teaching programs.  The four significant core components examined and proposed were teaching online policy, educational technology standards, full-time equivalency (FTE), and technical support.”

This study exhibits several components relevant to online education program development. Research questions were developed to guide the study.

  • 1. What are the core components that characterize successful online education programs as most important and least important?
  • 2. What are the core components that characterize successful online education programs as most effective and least effective?
  • 3. To what extent are core components of online education programs important?
  • 4. To what extent are core components of online education programs effective?

Essentially this is  “sub-study of an original survey consisting of 25 questions posed to those who were administrators of online teaching. This study identified three major areas of issues and practices relating to commitment, administration, and technology within online education.”

Crawford-Ferre, H., Wiest, L., . (2012). *

Effective online instruction in higher education. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 13(1), 11-14. Retrieved from

SUMMARY:  The researchers presented effective online instructin practices such as:  course design, interaction among course participants, instructor participation and support.

Dechant, K., & Dechant, L. (2010).*

Using systems theory to conceptualize the implementation of undergraduate online education in a university setting. Organization Management Journal, 7(4), 291-300. doi:

REVIEW:  The authors, Kathleen Dechant is a professor and Lauren Dechant is an instructional designer are knowledgeable of online learning design and adult education theory sought to develop a road map for university-wide quality undergraduate online education as part of a task force team.  This article is a reflection of their experiences on the task force.

SUMMARY:  They found the following results:

  • Online learning development should be linked to  and integrated within the academic plan

  • A systems approach should be applied to the evaluation

  • Instructors must learn new methods a procedures that are different from the traditional classroom setting

  • Faculty roles change and they must acquire new skills and be compensated differently for teaching online

  • Students need to learn in new ways and must possess different self-management skills

Dykman Charlene, A., & During, Charles, K. (2008).•

Online education forum - part three A quality online educational experience. Journal of Information Systems Education, 19(3), 281-289. Retrieved from


This article is a review of the literature, an overview of the author’s experience, and application of best practices to online learning.  As a result of their research the authors identified the following essential elements of quality in online education:

  • The structure of the course management system

  • STandardized approach to course design:
    • Standard look and feel
    • Complete profiles
    • Modular Course Content
    • Unit Structure
    • Discussion questions
    • Feedback and Grading

  • Planning Perspective:
    • Basic Philosophy
    • Pace of delivery
    • Basis for grading
    • Assessment of performance
    • Preparing for problems
    • Course Preparation

  • Clearly defined learning objectives
    • Formal Objectives
    • Critical First Steps
    • Clarity of purpose

  • Consistent interaction with learners
    • Effective collaboration

  • Clear expectations for learners
    • Measurable objectives
    • Formal statement of expectations
    • Learning crises

  • Significance of class sizes
    • Time commitment
    • Critical Mass
    • Learning objectives and course delivery

Endean, M., Bin, B., Du, R., (2011)

Endean, M., Bin, B., & Ruo, D. (2010). QUALITY STANDARDS IN ONLINE DISTANCE EDUCATION. International Journal Of Continuing Education & Lifelong Learning, 3(1), 53-71.

In this study the authors looked at  how the “quality of educational provision — not specifically online learning — is managed across European universities,” primarily in the UK but included the Open University of China as a brief contrasting example.  

They found that reputation can act as a badge of quality if an institution has a long history and pattern of providing quality education programs and services they do not require the stamp of quality provided by external reviewers.    Conversely a new entrant into the field of online education may desire the quality stamp of approval obtained via an external review process.

Greenhalgh, T., Toon, P., Russell, J., Wong, G., & al, e. (2003).

Transferability of principles of evidence based medicine to improve educational quality: Systematic review and case study of an online course in primary health care. British Medical Journal, 326(7381), 142-5. Retrieved from

Horne, E.., & Sandmann, L. (2012).*

Current trends in systematic program evaluation of online graduate nursing education: An integrative literature review. Journal of Nursing Education, 51(10), 570-578. doi:

REVIEW AND SUMMARY: Identifies that reports of a systematic programmatic evaluation of online education are scarce in the literature.  Identified, from a review of the literature, why program is important and necessary for reporting to stakeholders.    They identified the following parameters.

General components and guidelines for systematic program evaluation (Fitzpatrick et al., 2011; Patton, 2008; Rossi, Lipsey, & Freeman, 2004; Rovai, 2003) identified in the evaluation literature include:

  • Identify stakeholders and clarify the purposes of the evaluation.
  • Analyze the context of the evaluation and set boundaries on what is to be evaluated.
  • Determine the evaluation approach or approaches.
  • Identify and select the evaluation questions and criteria.
  • Conduct the evaluation, using identified methods for data collection and analysis interpret, report, and use the results.

  • They found a paucity in the literature regarding online graduate nursing education.   The results were actually used for the authors to define a comprehensive agenda for future research.


Hunter, D. Y. (2011).

Who holds the pen? strategies to student satisfaction scores in online learning environments. The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(2), 75-81. Retrieved from

Ismail, I., & Siti, N. A. (2012).

Distance learners’ needs on interactivity in SMS-based learning system. Asian Social Science,8(11), 119-128. Retrieved from

Mahboub, E. H. (2011).

The role of new information technology in education and development: A case study of building trust in distance education. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 4(11), 387-398. Retrieved from

Molinari, C. A. (2012).*

Online and blended learning: Are we delivering quality undergraduate programs in health administration? The Journal of Health Administration Education, 29(1), n/a. Retrieved from

Nicole, C. G., Edwards, H., Wolodko, B., Stewart, C., Brooks, M., & Littledyke, R. (2010). Reconceptualising higher education pedagogy in online learning. Distance Education, 31(3), 257-273. Retrieved from

REVIEW AND SUMMARY:  The researcher found that demographics characteristics of learners did not contribute to their preferring online courses, but they did find that the students had work and time demands that influenced their preference for online and hybrid courses.

Nowell, G. (2011).*

Student course evaluations in traditional and blended courses: A case study. American Journal of Business Education, 4(1), 13-18. Retrieved from

REVIEW AND SUMMARY:  The subject of this study was to determine there was any difference in student satisfaction with blended courses and online courses.  The author used the Sloan C 5 pillars of quality in online education as the basis for evaluation.    Ultimately the findings resulted in “no difference,” in the comparison of blended classes with online.   

Phillips, Janet M,M.S., R.N. (2005).

Strategies for active learning in online continuing education. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 36(2), 77-83. Retrieved from

Poteau, C. E. (2011).*

Inter + active classrooms: Creative approaches to learning and teaching. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 4(11), 203-210. Retrieved from

REVIEW AND SUMMARY:  The author states that the aim of the research was to explore the cognitive and sociocultural theories of language learning theories and the effects of affective factors in the language learning process.  The method used by the author seems to be an overview “relevant

empirical and theoretical research on language learners’ experiences participating in online

collaborative tasks and the uses of authentic online resources in the language classroom.”

They found that use of the internet can be used by educators to improve their teaching and enhance the experience of language learners.

Revere, L., & Kovach, J. V. (2011).*

ONLINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENGAGED LEARNING A Meaningful Synthesis for Educators. Quarterly Review Of Distance Education, 12(2), 113-124.

REVIEW AND SUMMARY:  This article focused on those educational technologies that engaged students in interactions in the learning management system.  Those that are internal to the learning management system  included discussion boards, chat session, blogs, wikis, group tasks, peer assessment.  Those that the authors identified as external to the learning management system include Twitter, Google App (now Drive), audio and video technology, collaboration technologies, and online content.

The authors also provide an overview of how these interactive activities can be implemented by the instructors.  

Reynolds, R. (2011).

Trends influencing the growth of digital textbooks in US higher education. Publishing Research Quarterly, 27(2), 178-187. doi:

Reynolds identified the following trends that have influenced the growth of digital textbooks:

  • Within the general publishing, education, and technology markets, the growth of
  • digital textbook sales will be influenced by the following factors:
  • The cost of textbooks and other learning materials
  • The availability of digital textbook content
  • Student buying and sharing trends
  • The continued growth of for-profit institutions and online learning
  • The increased popularity and availability of OER and open digital content
  • An increase in digital-first publishers and open textbook movements
  • The textbook rental market
  • The popularity of online retail and distribution options
  • The popularity and evolution of tablet devices and smartphones
  • The advance of e-reader software/hardware technology
  • Format standards for digital textbooks
  • The growth of e-books in trade publishing

The study included a review of trends evident in the research and the researcher conducted interviews with representatives from leading textbook publishers.

The researcher also noted that Google, Apple and  Amazon will be and are major influencers on the textbook market.This primarily due to inroads they already have such as ITunesU, Amazon’s Kindle and publishing, and Google Scholars and Google Books.

Roe, R. (2010).*

Considering Quality Control in Distance and Online Education: A Commentary. Kentucky Journal Of Excellence In College Teaching & Learning, 870-74.

REVIEW AND SUMMARY:  The author provides a basic overview of the literature and presents examples of quality in distance or online education.

Shea, P. (2009).

Measures of Quality in Online Education: An Investigation of the Community of Inquiry Model and the Net Generation. Journal Of Educational Computing Research, 39(4), 339-361.

Shelton, K. (2010).*

A quality scorecard for the administration of online education programs: A delphi study. The University of Nebraska – Lincoln). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 561. Retrieved from (759782268).

Simonson, M., Schlosser, C., & Orellana, A. (2011). Distance education research: A review of the literature. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 23(2-3), 124-142. doi:

REVIEW:  The author of this study set out to address the following questions:

  • Are the standards identified in the IHEP study in 2000 still relevant in 2010 for indicating quality in online education programs in higher education?

  • What additional standards should be included that address the current industry in 2010?

  • If additional standards are suggested, will they fall into the already identified themes or will new themes emerge?

  • What values will be assigned to the recommended standards that will ultimately yield a numeric scorecard for measuring quality online education programs from an online education administrator’s perspective that could also support strategic planning and program improvements?

Research Method:   The author applied the following methodology: The Delphi Method was selected as the appropriate research method to develop the quality scorecard because of its ability “to seek out information which may generate a consensus on the part of the respondent group and correlate informed judgments on a topic spanning a wide range of disciplines”  (cited Day, J., and M. Bobeva. A Generic Toolkit for the Successful Management of Delphi Studies. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methodology. 3(2):102-16 (2005). )

SUMMARY:  The intended outcome of this study was to develop a scorecard to measure and quantify elements of quality within online education programs in higher education.  The author found that in order to evaluate quality course and program developers for online education will have to  abandon the traditional indicators that have been in use for so long.  Benchmarks and indicators of quality in online education will change and evolve as online education pedagogy and technology changes and evolves.

Songtao, M., & Lin, Z. (2012).*


REVIEW:  The authors state that the “objective of this study is to provide an exploratory analysis of the application of the tracking mechanism offered by Blackboard. By examining the relationship between monitoring data and student performance, the study attempts to investigate the effectiveness of the monitoring system, and to provide insights into the techniques that promote learning and teaching efficiency.”

Research Method:  They did so by studying the following variables, evident in the    

Blackboard course monitoring system:  

  • times of each access to the course section
  • the total time spent before the assessment
  • total times of reading email messages received
  • total times of sending email messages
  • square foot of the total time spent on the assessment
  • the total of variables “Mail read” and “Mail sent.”

SUMMARY:  The authors cite research that indicates that student are now spending more time working full time or part time and this has in impact on their time studying and working on coursework:

Research shows that college students nowadays spend less time on course work but more time on part time or full time jobs (e.g., Nonis & Hudson, 2006).

Tello, S.  (2007).*

An analysis of student persistence in online education. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 3(3), 47-52,54,56-62. Retrieved from

REVIEW AND SUMMARY:  The researcher identifies that this study “examined the relationship of persistence to

  • the frequency of instructional interaction
  • the method of instructional interaction [and]
  • student attitudes regarding interaction and their online course experience.”

Research Methods:  The following methodology was applied:

This study utilized a survey research methodology and records review to investigate the relationship between instructional interaction and student persistence. Specifically,

this study asked:

  • Is there a relationship between the frequency of instructional interaction and levels of student persistence in online courses?  

  • Is there a relationship between the method of instructional interaction and student persistence in online courses?  

  • Do other variables emerge as correlates of persistence among students in online courses?

SUMMARY:   Basically this study found that the “relationship between student persistence in online education and the use of asynchronous discussion forums is mediated by student attitudes toward their respective online courses and the perceived educational contribution of discussion forum use.”

Zhao, F. (2003).

Enhancing the quality of online higher education through measurement. Quality Assurance in Education,11(4), 214-221. Retrieved from


Author Bio:

Dr. Anderson has been employed in higher education for more than 14 years with experience in Adult Basic Education, English Literacy, Distance Education, and Student Services.  She holds a Bachelor’s and Master’s Degree from the University of Wyoming and Ph. D. in Business Administration from Trident University International.


The Artist, Juliëtte van Bavel  

Juliëtte van Bavel is a multi-disciplined artist from The Netherlands who makes creations in abstract-photography, stone and oil-paint.  Her philosophy of life is encapsulated by the following:

"Flowing Creativity knows no boundary in matter."

"Art is an expression of love."

Juliëtte has a fascination for light and movement. This has become her study in art at all levels, independent of the discipline.

She has been active as an artist since the very young age of four, discovering her way, first in dance, music and drama till she found "her discipline" in Fine Arts.